Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) count is employed as an immune status indicator for diagnosis of numerous medical conditions. Currently, assessment of PMNLs (i.e., neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils) is a part of complete blood count (CBC) that is performed by trained technicians at healthcare centers and involves sample preparation which is costly and time consuming, both of which limits monitoring frequency. A prominent application of PMNL counting is in identification of neutropenia—a condition describing an abnormally low number of neutrophils in the bloodstream (<1500/μL)—common among cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Susceptibility to infections in neutropenia patients puts them at an increased risk for medical emergencies, and thus requires constant monitoring of their neutrophil count. Therefore, a portable and easy-to-use, in-home device can potentially circumvent these requirements and enable neutropenia diagnosis. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility of accurately identifying PMNL subtypes using deep-ultraviolet (UV) microscopy as label-free molecular imaging technique. Our approach benefits from quantitative endogenous molecular information provided by deep-UV imaging, to enable assessment of different cell types based on their molecular and structural signatures. We show the ability of our system to measure neutrophil count in samples containing a mixture of PMNL subtypes as well as whole blood samples by extracting various features from deep-UV images and performing classification to obtain cell count for each subtype. Finally, we will discuss the potential of this technology to empower cancer patients and improve their quality of life via a simple and relatively inexpensive device for point-of-care neutropenia assessment.