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4 March 2019 High speed spectral fluorescence lifetime imaging for life science applications
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We present an achromatic confocal laser scanning system capable of recording spectrally resolved fluorescence lifetime images (sFLIMs) at a rate of >8 frames per second (FPS) for a 128 x 128 image. This frame rate was achieved by optimizing the processing of lifetime calculations from previous results which demonstrated >4 FPS sFLIM imaging. The imaging system is achromatic for a spectral range of 400 - 900 nm, achieved by using reflective optics instead of a transmissive lens system, except for the primary objectives. Two excitation sources have been integrated into the system, 485 nm and 640 nm laser diodes with a pulse width of <70 ps and <90 ps respectively. Imaging is performed via a galvanometric mirror system which scans the laser beam over the sample with the ability to change the Field of View (FOV) on the fly. The collected fluorescence signal is focused into a multimode fiber via a second objective and recollimated onto a transmissive grating for spectral dispersion onto a novel complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor single photon avalanche diode (CMOS SPAD) line array sensor. This sensor can perform lifetime histogram generation on-chip and process over 16.5 Giga events/s enabling fast lifetime data acquisition. High speed sFLIM is demonstrated through imaging of convallaria majalis sections.
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Elvira Williams, Gareth O. S. Williams, Ahmet T. Erdogan, Neil Finlayson, Robert K. Henderson, and John M. Girkin "High speed spectral fluorescence lifetime imaging for life science applications", Proc. SPIE 10889, High-Speed Biomedical Imaging and Spectroscopy IV, 108890P (4 March 2019);

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