1 August 1989 Laser Plasma As X-Ray Source For Lithographic Imaging
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Experimental work on laser plasma based X-ray lithography is presented, aimed at the development of a compact lithographic work station for VLSI pattern transfer. The results are obtained with a frequency doubled low repetition rate Nd:YAG/glass laser (532 nm, 3.5 J, 14 ns) with a power density at the laser focus of 3.5 x 1012 W/cm2. Spectral and time characteristics of X-ray emission of the laser plasma are shown. From a comparison of resist exposure using synchrotron radiation and radiation from the laser plasma, a conversion efficiency of 7.6 % of laser energy into X-ray energy in the exposure producing 845 eV band is calculated. The laser plasma X-ray source is used to image Si X-ray masks with submicron Au absorber patterns. Experimental X-ray sensitive photoresists, i.e. RAY-PF and a more sensitive formula of this resist, are used to record the structures and are analysed for their imaging properties. With 90 laser pulses 0.5 μm mask structures were faithfully reproduced on RAY-PF X-ray resist using a source-to-wafer distance of 95 mm. Only 35 laser pulses give sufficient intensity for correct exposure of the enhanced sensitivity formula. Under optimized conditions a single laser pulse was found to be sufficient for the replication of submicron patterns.
© (1989) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Fred Bijkerk, Fred Bijkerk, Eric Louis, Eric Louis, Gert E. van Dorssen, Gert E. van Dorssen, Marnix J. van der Wiel, Marnix J. van der Wiel, } "Laser Plasma As X-Ray Source For Lithographic Imaging", Proc. SPIE 1089, Electron-Beam, X-Ray, and Ion-Beam Technology: Submicrometer Lithographies VIII, (1 August 1989); doi: 10.1117/12.968536; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.968536


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