In this study, we present a 3D-printing based realistic anthropomorphic dental phantom and its imaging evaluation. A real skull phantom was scanned with CBCT with high resolution, and then image segmentation and 3D modeling were carried out for bones, teeth, and soft tissue. Followed by was 3D printing of bones and teeth with gypsum, with additional 3 teeth being printed with metal separately. For soft tissue, a negative model was first printed with PMMA, and then silicon gel was casted into the negative model with printed bones and teeth set in place. The created phantom was scanned with by using an MDCT and dental CBCT scanner for image quality evaluation of CT images, panoramic images, and also metal artifacts. Our goal was to make our phantom to mimic the real skull phantom. Our proposed phantom’s CT, panoramic images look almost the same with the real skull phantom’s one. Mean HU of bone was comparable between 3D printed and real skull phantoms (1860 vs 1730), and mean HU of soft tissue was 40 in 3D printed dental phantom. Image quality of dental CT images assessed by an expert was comparable between real skull and 3D printed phantom. Especially, the metal artifacts from the metal printed teeth was rated as realistically mimicking the real crowned teeth. Our study demonstrated the feasibility of making 3D printing-based making realistic anthropomorphic phantoms which can be used in various dental imaging studies.