The impact of image noise on the accuracy of CD extraction is explained in the section on analysis of variance (ANOVA). The variation is separated as wafer to wafer (WTW), field to field (FTF), die to die (DTD), pattern to pattern (PTP), line width roughness (LWR), and stochastic pattern noise (SPN; which is random variation per a pattern) at this ANOVA. Roughness component from image noise is included in SPN. It is possible to remove the image noise component from SPN by applying this new image analysis method, and it is also possible to discuss the SPN from shot noise of exposure tool or variation of resist material component. ANOVA can put an end to discussion of measurement length of line pattern to know the state of low frequency roughness. LWR component of long wavelength is distributed to PTP and SPN when short patterns are measured. It is important to remove image nose properly and to compare the statistical analysis processed SPN value.
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