Using MC-SIMS methodology, we directly measured key factors influencing the PAG homogeneity at the nanoscale including (1) PAG concentration, (2) the nature of the polymer matrix, (3) the nature of the PAG, and (4) additives. We discovered that 85-95% of PAG salts aggregate at the nanoscale. The majority of the PAG aggregates are less than 10 nm in size and are highly homogeneously distributed within the polymer matrix in the film. Furthermore, the size of the PAG aggregates can be manipulated by additives through an ion-exchange mechanism.
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