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14 May 2019 An intensified camera module for the range performance model TRM4
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Range performance is the key figure for assessing and comparing electro-optical imagers for target acquisition. TRM4 is a widely used model to calculate the range performance based on parameters of the imaging system and the environmental conditions. It enables the user to assess imaging devices working in the spectral range from the visible to the thermal infrared using the same modeling principles and taking into account aliasing effects of sampled imagers. This paper presents the intensified camera module that will be included in the next TRM4 release, TRM4.v3. The module extends the modeling capabilities of TRM4 to imagers that employ an image intensifier tube coupled by means of fiber optics tapers or lenses to a CCD or CMOS detector array. These systems combine advantages of large detector arrays with low-light level imaging capabilities in the visible and part of the near-infrared spectral bands, which makes them interesting for reconnaissance during night. We describe how the image intensifier tube and the coupling element are modeled and integrated into the TRM4 modeling chain. We also address the different user options to specify relevant input data as well as the main extensions of the TRM4 modeling equations. Based on the intensified camera module, we simulate and compare the performance of an intensified camera and an electron multiplied CCD for various night illumination conditions. Finally, we give an outlook on validating the intensified camera module against lab measurements.
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Stefan Keßler, José Pérez, and Dov Steiner "An intensified camera module for the range performance model TRM4", Proc. SPIE 11001, Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing XXX, 1100109 (14 May 2019);

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