Techniques for improving the knowledge of the radiance of large area spherical and hemispherical integrating energy sources have been investigated. Such sources are used to calibrate numerous aircraft and spacecraft remote sensing instruments. Comparisons are made between using a standard source based calibration method and a quantum efficient detector (QED) based calibration method. The uncertainty involved in transferring the calibrated values of the point source standard lamp to the extended source is estimated to be 5 to 10%. The use of the QED allows an improvement in the uncertainty to 1 to 2% for the measurement of absolute radiance from a spherical integrator source.
James T. McLean,
Bruce W. Guenther,
"Radiance Calibration Of Spherical Integrators", Proc. SPIE 1109, Optical Radiation Measurements II, (26 September 1989); doi: 10.1117/12.960714; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.960714