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16 March 2020 Initial characterization of a hybrid direct-indirect active matrix flat panel imager for digital radiography
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Direct active matrix flat panel imagers (AMFPIs) using amorphous selenium (a-Se) offer high intrinsic spatial resolution but have limited x-ray quantum efficiency at general radiographic energies due to selenium’s low atomic number. Conversely, indirect AMFPIs using inorganic scintillators typically have superior x-ray quantum efficiency at these energies, but inferior spatial resolution and increased noise due to optical effects in the scintillator. These inherent limitations motivate alternative AMFPI designs to further improve detector xray sensitivity and signal-to-noise performance. Towards this goal, this work constructs and experimentally investigates the x-ray imaging performance of a novel direct-indirect prototype imager referred to as Hybrid AMFPI. The imager comprises a direct conversion a-Se layer that may be coupled to an interchangeable scintillator screen through a transparent blocking layer and bias electrode. In this direct-indirect “hybrid” configuration, a-Se serves as both an x-ray and optical sensor. Readout is performed by a thin-film transistor array with 85 μm pixel pitch. The prototype imager’s x-ray sensitivity, modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) are measured in a direct AMFPI configuration (i.e. a-Se alone) and in a Hybrid configuration under identical x-ray exposure conditions and the results are compared. Contrast-detail and spatial resolution phantoms are also imaged using direct, Hybrid and indirect AMFPI configurations under identical exposure conditions to evaluate differences in their imaging performance.
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Adrian Howansky, Anastasiia Mishchenko, Sébastien Léveillé, Scott Dow, Jann Stavro, A. Goldan, James Scheuermann, A. R. Lubinsky, and Wei Zhao "Initial characterization of a hybrid direct-indirect active matrix flat panel imager for digital radiography", Proc. SPIE 11312, Medical Imaging 2020: Physics of Medical Imaging, 113120X (16 March 2020);

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