High-dimensional entangled states of light provide novel possibilities for quantum information, from fundamental tests of quantum mechanics to enhanced computation and communication protocols. In this context, the frequency degree of freedom is particular attractive thanks to its robustness to propagation in optical fibers and its capability to convey large scale of quantum information into a single spatial mode. This provides a strong incentive for the development of efficient and scalable methods for the generation and the manipulation of frequency-encoded quantum states. Nonlinear parametric processes are powerful tools to generate such states, but up to now the manipulation of the generated frequency states has been carried out mostly by post-manipulation, which demands complex and bulk-like experimental setups. Direct production of on-demand frequency-states at the generation stage, and if possible using a chip-based source, is crucial in view of practical and scalable applications for quantum information technologies.
Here we use an integrated semiconductor chip to engineer the wavefunction and exchange statistics of frequency-entangled photon pairs directly at the generation stage, without post-manipulation. Tuning the pump spatial intensity allows to produce frequency-anticorrelated, correlated and separable states, while tuning the spatial phase enables to switch between symmetric and antisymmetric spectral wavefunctions, leading respectively to bosonic and fermionic behaviors of the photons. We also demonstrate the generation of non-Gaussian entanglement in the continuous variables formed by the frequency and time degrees of freedom of the photon pairs. These results, obtained at room temperature and telecom wavelength, and with a chip-based source, open promising perspectives for the quantum simulation of fermionic problems with photons on an integrated platform, as well as for communication and computation protocols exploiting antisymmetric high-dimensional quantum states.