An intriguing property of a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) is the existence of surface states with spin-momentum locking. We report the discovery of a new type of Hall effect in a TI Bi2Se3 film . The Hall resistance scales linearly with both the applied electric and magnetic fields and exhibits a π/2 angle offset with respect to its longitudinal counterpart, in contrast to the usual angle offset of π/4 between the linear planar Hall and anisotropic magnetoresistance. At variance with the nonlinear Hall effect due to Berry curvature dipole in time-reversal invariant materials, this novel nonlinear planar Hall effect originates from the conversion of a nonlinear transverse spin current to a charge current due to the concerted actions of spin-momentum locking and time-reversal symmetry-breaking, which also exists in other non-centrosymmetric materials [e.g., WTe2 and the 2DEG on the SrTiO3(001) surface] with a large span of magnitude.
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Shulei Zhang, Pan He, Dapeng Zhu, Shuyuan Shi, Olle G. Heinonen, Giovannia Vignale, Hyunsoo Yang, "Nonlinear spin and charge transport in topological insulators," Proc. SPIE 11470, Spintronics XIII, 114702T (20 August 2020); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2568265