This paper describes a new class of instruments that can reliably produce and control small motions. The instrument is intrinsically stiff, stable, athermal and adaptable to very harsh environments. Although the principles may be scaled for large motions, their current application is optimized for the optical wavelength range, a micron to an angstrom or smaller. The paper also describes the "calibrated elasticity" principles used in the development of the instruments.
Alson E. Hatheway,
"An Instrument For Generation And Control Of Sub-Micron Motion.", Proc. SPIE 1167, Precision Engineering and Optomechanics, (9 November 1989); doi: 10.1117/12.962961; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.962961