The importance of optics to the economic and military strength of the United States is well known. Advances in optical technology have substantial leverage and are closely related to advances in associated technologies (i.e., imaging, sensing, communications, guidance control, etc.). However, the lead in manufacturing and fabrication of optical components and systems has been lost to our world competitors, especially Japan and other Pacific Rim countries. The optics industrial base has been in a slow but constant decline since the 1970's. The shift in business strategy from manufacturing emphasis to purchasing from worldwide resources has resulted in many U.S. "manufacturers" becoming importers. Optics employment dropped 50% from 1981 to 1986. Imports currently dominate both the U.S. commercial and DOD optics markets.
The basic idea of optical replicatipn is not new. The earliest patent on the subject was awarded on August 21, 1883. Today, most of the efforts go into fine-tuning the process. New materials are being investigated and new methods of making replication masters are being explored. To report on the progress being made and to comment on general applications of the technology are the purposes of this paper.
Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) has found wide use as a manufacturing process in semiconductor fabrication, but has not been previously used successfully for the manufacture of optical coatings. Recent work at Deposition Sciences has made it possible to manufacture on a routine basis optical interference coatings using LPCVD. LPCVD has replaced evaporation as the preferred method for deposition of the optical coating on domes for Stinger missiles; over 10,000 Stinger missile domes have been coated by Deposition Sciences using our LPCVD manufacturing process. LPCVD processes have inherent technical and cost advantages over evaporation for a wide variety of optical coating applications. LPCVD is the process of choice for optical coating of very non-planar substrates, or for optical coatings that must withstand rigorous environments. This paper describes the properties of the LPCVD process as applied to optical coatings, some performance advantages of optical films deposited by LPCVD, and the capabilities of Deposition Sciences' current LPCVD manufacturing system.
Optics currently being considered for large systems are frequently ultra-lightweight and deformable by design. They can often have unusual shapes and include non-rotationally symmetric surface figures. Surface roughness, subsurface damage, light scattering and laser damage threshold specifications are also frequently required. Manufacturing techniques currently being developed to address these stringent requirements will be discussed.
Ion figuring has recently been shown to be an efficient and deterministic optical fabrication method. Eastman Kodak Company has developea a five-axis, computer-controlled Ion Figuring System (IFS) for final figuring of large size optical elements. Components with major dimensions up to 2.5 x 2.5 x 0.6m can be processed. A standard Kaufman-type, ,broad-beam ion source has been employed to supply the stable ion beam removal function, used to physically sputter desired material from the target optical surface. Modeling results of this process have shown great potential to rapidly converge to required optical surface figures.
The simplest approach in developing a Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) machine tool would be to take a manually-operated machine and fit it with a standard, commercially available computer control system and drive packages, or so it would appear from a machine designer's viewpoint. This approach does tend to minimize the overall machine/system development costs; however, it can result in a control system too sophisticated, overly complex, and more expensive than necessary to control the machine.
The chronological events associated with fabricating a lens system from initial design to final component manufacturing will be explored. The benefits of utilizing computer integration in design, process planning and manufacturing will be highlighted.
For many years the market share maintained by U.S. optics manufacturers has been declining continuously caused in part by intense competition principally from countries in the Far East, and in part by the lack of a highly trained cadre of opticians to replace the current generation. This fact could place in jeopardy the defense system of the United States in case of international war. For example, in 1987, optical glass component imports accounted for approximately 50 percent of the Department of Defense (DOD) consumption. GELTECH's sol-gel technology is a new process for making a high quality optical glass and components for commercial and military uses. This technology offers in addition to being a local source of optics, the possibility to create new materials for high-tech optical applications, and the elimination of the major part of grinding and polishing for which the skill moved off-shore. This paper presents a summary of the solgel technology for the manufacture of high quality optical glass and components. Properties of pure silica glass made by solgel process (Type V and Type VI silicas) are given and include: ultraviolet, visible and near infrared spectrophotometry, optical homogeneity and thermal expansion. Many applications such as near net shape casting or Fresnel lens surface replication are discussed. Several potential new applications offered by the solgel technology such as organic-inorganic composites for non linear optics or scintillation detection are also reported in this paper.
Binary optics is an emerging technology whereby light is directed, combined, or distributed by an optical material having a "stepped" phase structure. We produce computer-generated diffractive elements having high optical efficiency using multiple mask lithography. Perkin-Elmer has an active research and development program supporting binary optics activities from software development to practical technology demonstrations. Standard software tools have been developed to facilitate the design of binary optics from general optical prescriptions. These tools are used to design binary masks for the fabrication of binary optics for diverse applications ranging from simple lenses to general phase transformations. This paper briefly reviews the development of binary optics, discusses the tools supporting the design and fabrication of binary optics, and presents recent applications and demonstrations of binary optics.
Current methods for fabricating beryllium optics are both time consuming and too expensive for many production applications. This has sometimes resulted in the substitution of marginally acceptable materials which do not always deliver the required performance. The advent of net shape blank fabrication directly from powder, utilizing disposable tooling and the hot isostatic pressing process, has provided the breakthrough which enables the cost effective production of beryllium mirrors.
This work explores an approach to the search for optimum solution in the multidimensional design space of a lens design through a survey of the system merit function by a systematic variation of relevant design parameters. Since there is no definitive algorithm that can lead from an initial configuration to a true optimal solution, most of the existing automatic design programs depend on mathematical optimization routines to direct the search to the nearest best solution, or Local Minimum, and usually they are unable to proceed towards a Global Minimum. This state of affairs often leads to a solution the quality of which is very much dependent on the initial configuration overlooking more promising regions. The new approach is a combined systematic procedure. In a first coarse sampling phase the program finds the favorable regions that correspond to potentially promising configurations. In a second phase, conventional optimization routines are used to find the best configuration in each region, and then a final selection phase is carried out in which the special requirements that were not included in the merit function are brought into consideration for the specific application at hand. This method provides overall information about a given design space and offers a selection of "best" solutions to choose from. It can be further refined by excluding from the systematic search some unfavorable configuration regions, by adopting elements of Artificial Intelligence disciplines. Speeding up the search can also be achieved through Parallel-Processing methods. Some selected multidimensional design spaces are evaluated and searched for best configurations. The results are presented and discussed, and comparison is made to the more conventional design approaches.
This paper is a report on the development, operating principles and applications of a camera capable of making distortion free peripheral reproductions of conical objects. In addition, the parameters governing its use for the generation of conical panoramic photographs are also described. Examples of both types of applications are included. Suggestions for other applications are given. A brief review of the operating principles of standard peripheral, panoramic and linear type strip cameras is included in the introduction to the paper.
Diffractive lenses have recently become realizable elements in optical systems. However, their application to wide band optical imaging systems are limited because they are highly dispersive and exhibit unacceptable amounts of color related aberrations. In this paper we will present a design study of the achromatization of hybrid refractive-diffractive lenses over wide spectral bands. Design examples of hybrid lenses which operate in the visible, mid-infrared (3 - 5 micron) and long-wave infrared (8 - 12 micron) spectral bands will be presented and a comparison with conventional lenses designed to operate in these spectral bands will be discussed.
The Holometrics 3-D vision system is a single camera, laser ranging sensor capable of high frame-rate mapping of the 3-D metric properties of a scene contained within the system field-of-view (FOV). The ranging function is accomplished with laser ranging techniques with frame rates of less than two-seconds over a 40 X 40 degree FOV. The range data acquired by the system is manipulated in an image processor which utilizes algorithms capable of extracting 3-D shape information. The algorithmic operations are accomplished regardless of rotation, orientation or partial obscuration of objects in the scene. The sensor is independent of ambient lighting conditions or visual contrast between object and background. The elapsed time from scene scan to processor output is less than three seconds. The system output data is used to support a wide range of automated manufacturing, inspection, robotic, navigation, bin-picking, assembly, ordnance guidance, etc. applications. A block diagram of the Holometrics 3-D Vision System is provided in Figure 1. The remainder of the paper describes the performance characteristics of this 3-D Vision System.
With the advent of new materials for solar cells, such as gallium arsenide, and of thinner materials used in larger flexible solar arrays, such as silicon and protective filter glasses, has come the need for improved methods for the detection of cracks in the optical materials that compose the components of each. Four basic sensor designs have been conceived for use with visibly transmissive, as well as visibly opaque materials. Based upon their specific optical approach, the designs are called brightfield, quasi-brightfield, darkfield reflective and darkfield transmissive. All of these designs rely upon the fact that the crack's cleavage in the material provides a total or near total internal reflection boundary. The basic design simply involves an irradiation source, to which the material is transmissive, and a video camera, which is sensitive to the source's radiation transmitted into and out of the material. Two of the designs have only been demonstrated and await further development, when their need arrives. The other two designs have been developed for specific applications and have been integrated into the production environment at this time. They are proven, viable sensor designs. All of these designs facilitate the extrapolation of the basic crack detection process to future machine vision automation.
The fields of view (effective aperture) of several types of cube corner retroreflectors; (solid circular, open circular, open hexagonal and open triangular) were experimentally measured at 6328Å. The relative return intensity of the incident beam versus horizontal yaw and vertical pitch angles are graphically presented. A polar contour map is shown for the 10 percent return intensity versus yaw angle for 360 degrees around the cube corner entrance face. Results show that the effective aperture for a solid circular cube corner is nearly uniformly circular around its face, while the open circular, hexagonal and triangular cube corners showed a strong triangularly shaped effective aperture. The field of view of the solid circular cube corner is wider than all open types, with the exception of the triangular, which extends further by 5 degrees at the triangle's vertices. All cube corners showed narrow angle two-mirror reflection peaks at field of view angles beyond that for three-mirror retroreflection. These narrow peaks were below 30 percent of the peak retroreflection return for a solid cube corner, but could equal or exceed the 100 percent retroreflection return with the open type of cube corner.
The change of the angle characteristic of an optical system when a component parameter is varied follows from first order perturbation theory. Simple formulas are obtained for the sensitivity of the angle characteristic to changes in position, form and refractive index. These formulas can be applied in the design and assembling of optical systems. In assembling we use them for the measurement of decenters; in design we can obtain the mechanical tolerances from them, and also the magnitude of steps in parameter space to be taken in an optimization procedure. We apply our analysis to the systems that were discussed in a previous paperl. It will be seen that the concept of strain discussed in that paper also applies to the calculation of tolerances. The sensitivity of a system to component shifts and tilts correlates with the strain caused by this component. The sensitivity analysis developed in this paper therefore confirms the conclusion of the previous paper. 1 J.L.F. de Meijere, J.A. Schuurman and C.H.F. Velzel, The use of the pseudo-eikonal in the optimization of optical systems, Proc. SPIE Conf. 1013, sept. 1988, Hamburg.
Interferometric measurements of real surfaces are combined with computed optical design analyses. To accomplish this, a special software interface driver was developed to accept serial Optical Path Difference (OPD) data from a Zygo Mark III interferometer, apply standard algorithms, and convert the measured data into a CODE V readable file. Analysis was conducted on a large aperture developmental optical system containing a fold mirror of eggcrate construction. MTF performance of the entire system was computed as were the contributions of individual surfaces to overall optical quality. Diffraction effects due to the rib structure of the eggcrate mirror were apparent in this analysis, as were the effects of gravity and figure components of the wavefront. This hybrid analysis demonstrates the usefulness of coupling interferometry with an optical design program in the analysis of complex optical systems.
Windows of different materials are used through which radiation passes onto the sensors behind them. The sensors are usually optical systems designed to have near diffraction-limited performance with detectors located in their focal planes. If the window has defects such as wedge angle, surface power etc., any plane wave entering it will not remain as a plane wave nor will its direction remain the same as before. Thus the sensor receives a distorted and deviated wave and hence will not form a diffraction-limited image in its focal plane at the proper place. It is frequently necessary to tilt the window at a considerable angle with respect to the optical axis of the sensor. Any wedge and surface errors are accentuated because of this large tilt of the window. We present here a simple analysis of the wedge and surface power effects of the window on the wave-front transmitted by it. A simple demonstration of these effects was shown using two windows made of BK7 glass and obtaining the interference patterns at different tilt angles. One window was made with a very slight wedge angle while the second window was made with slight surface power. The demonstration confirms the results of the simple analysis presented here.
The optics of the Hubble Space Telescope consist essentially of a primal), and a secondary mirror. Measurements from three wavefront sensors are telemetered to the ground where a series of computations are made to determine whether the telescope is performing within specification. If not, optimum secondary mirror realignment parameters are computed based on interferometrically determined aberrations present in the wavefront. This method, which is the primary method for wavefront correction of the telescope requires at least two of the three wavefront sensors to be available. To provide additional reliability a backup scheme has been implemented which makes use of a phase retrieval algorithm to compute secondary mirror misalignments from measured point spread function data at two different field locations. The point spread function data is obtained from two scientific instruments, the Faint Object Camera and the Wide Field Planetary Camera. After image centroiding to remove unnecessary tilt, and pixel deconvolution to remove detector effects, comparison pupil functions are written in terms of annular Zernike Polynomials. At the two field locations of the instruments, artificial point spread functions are generated from Fast Fourier Ransforms (FFT) of the respective pupil functions and the mean square differences between the actual PSF's and constructed PSF's are minimized with respect to the Zernike Polynomial coefficients. Thus two sets of coefficients are obtained one for each of the field positions. Statistical regression analysis is then used to determine the misalignments as a function of the aberration coefficients.
We have set up Optical Lens Data Rase on VAX-8600 computer, compiled base management software and query software. filled up the data of typical lens over one thousand and optical material over one thousand kinds,and shall extend OLDB unceasingly. It is proved by test and use that WA performance is reliable, opertion is convenient, so that OLEW provides a kind of modern means raising design level, reducing repeated work, shortening research period for the worker of optical design. Optical Lens Data lase (OHO that is set up on the VAX-8600 computer is a kind of modern beans serving resear(h, education, production efficiently with summing-up, regulating and recordi rat, oplical design result last many years, collecting the lens data of high quality. It is beneficial to change the aspect of separating data for oplical design, stopping-up information and the situation for repeated work without the neressiiy. It has significant science value and socity benefit. Setting up 01,1)11 is also a branch subject of a main subject for "expert system of opthal instrument", and a important basis. After expert system is successfully developed, it is very beneficial to reducing person labour intensity, raising design quality, speeding up design rate of progress, shortening production period and reducing production cost, so that we have set up OLDB on VAX-8600 computer and its primary mould has basically been finished.
The use of an antireflection (AR) coating which is a series of homogeneous layers whose index steps down from the substrate index to the index of air or a vacuum has been well described in the literature (1,2). These are particularly attractive for high index substrates such as germanium, but are limited by the availability of appropriate real coating materials. The limiting factor is a lack of practical materials whose index is less than about 1.35. Another family of AR coatings which include one or more half wave layers is also known. The most common of these is the classical QHQ design. DeBell(3) reported on designs such as QHHHQ and QHHHHHQ where the H's are alternating high and low index layers. We have found that there is a family of inhomogeneous or "Rugate" index functions which can produce broadband AR coatings. These point to some general principles of AR coating design which have not been previously obvious from the literature. We describe these investigations and findings in graphical form. We discuss the concepts and understanding gained and examine the possibilities and limitations of the approach.
The remarkable developments in fine line lithography and new epitaxial technologies of MBE and MOCVD have generated significant possibilities of fabricating various types of 2D structures, viz. ultrathin films, inversion layers etc. In ultrathin films where the width of the films are comparable to the de Broglie wave length of the carriers, 'the restriction of the motion of the carriers in the direction normal to the film (say, the z-direction) may be viewed as carrier confinement in an infinitely deep 1D square potential well, leading to the quantization (known as quantum size effect (qv)) of the wavevector, allowing 21) electron transport parallel to the film representating new characteristics not exhibited in bulk semiconductors. Heterostructures based on different materials are currently widely investigated because of the enhancement of the carrier mobility. Though many new effects associated with size quantization have been already reported, neverthe-less, it appears from the literature that the photoemission from ultrathin films of small gap optical materials has yet to be studied. We shall take ultrathin films of n-CdGeAs2) as an example, though from our generalized expressions, the well-known special resalts for wide gap materials can be derived. The above class of compounds are being increasingly used as non-linear optical materials and light emitting diodes. We have formulatW the photoemission from ultrathin films of n-CdGeAs, by deducing a new dispersion law, within the framework of k formalism, taking into account various types of anisotropies in the energy spectrum. It is found, that the photoemission increases with incident photon energy in a ladder like manner and also exhibits oscillatory dependence with changing film thickness and surface electron concentration respectively. The corresponAing results for isotropic parabolic energy bands have also been obtained as special cases of our generalized results.
Basic radiometry theory is introduced and applied to an infrared (IR) test set used to provide a collimated beam irradiance to a missile seeker objective for the purpose of calibration and testing. The test set optical elements consist essentially of a thermal radiation blackbody source used with appropriate apertures and an off-axis paraboloidal mirror. The functional configuration and geometrical relationships of the test set are described which Facilitate obtaining parameters necessary for irradiance computations. A short, simple program written in Basic is provided which may be used to determine on--axis irradiance for a given blackbody temperature, target aperture and spectral band. This paper should be of interest to those engaged in related IR seeker performance testing; however, this work is of course applicable in general for basic IR calibration support systems.
The projection TV of high picture quality and short depth, has been developed, using the new optical system with short projection distance which has been realized by plastic and glass hybrid lens and aspherical phosphor screen.
The head-up display system (HUM) has been developed for the windshield of Nissan Motor's passenger car, '88 model of Silvia (240SX) and '89 model of Maxima. HUD consists of a projector with high brightness VFT and a combiner which is a light-selective reflective film applied on the surface of ' e windshield. The system provides nice display legibility of speed in a three-digit reap at the position more than one meter far from driver's eye even under the bright sunlight. In this report, we present the optical properties and manufacturing process of the advanced combiner. The combiner has to have high transmittance as well as high reflectance so that a driver can see both foreground object and display reading at the same time. The optical design for the combiner is based on the concepts: (a) Visible light transmittance has to be 70% or more in accordance with a legal requirement, and (b) taking both peak wavelengths of Vim' and sensitivity characteristics of human eyes into consideration, 530nm of wave length is chosen as a reflective light. The combiner consists of a dielectric thin layer of Ti02-Si02 system. Its basic structure is decided by simulation with matrix method of the resultant waves. The coating film is applied on the restricted area of the forth surface of laminated windshield by newly developed solgel printing process using a metal alkoxide solution with a relatively long storage life.
In applying a head-up display (HUD), originally developed for aircraft use, to automobiles, it is very important to analyze how it affects the driver's ability to recognize foreground objects and what kinds of advantages can be derived from its application. This paper describes the effects of reducing line of vision movement and recurring eye accommodation, as well as interference between complex HUD display patterns and foreground objects and the requirements for preventing such interference. Experiments were carried out under conditions determined in preliminary investigations using real vehicles in city driving situations. The results suggested that, so long as the brightness of the displayed objects is set properly, a HUD can be an effective automotive display system providing good recognizability of both displayed information and foreground objects.
It is required that a drive for a 3.5 inch (90 mm) magneto-optical (MO) disk should be the same size as that of a floppy disk so that it can be installed into the host computer's drive slot instead of the floppy disk drive. We realized a compact-size optical head for the 3.5 inch disk drives by developing an astigmatic micro PBS (polarized beam splitter) as an analyzer. The astigmatic micro PBS (ASPBS) has both a polarizing function for the MO detection and an astigmatic function for the focus detection. And our optical head is based on the discrete block servo format (DBF).
Thermal Nondestructive Testing in the USSR having being started in sixties has passed rather long way from theoretical estimations to the computerized active systems using the Soviet and Western thermo-visers. Perspective fields of researchings include thermal defec-tometry and tomoglaphy.
A method to efficiently gauge the etching depth in a D-type fiber is presented. A more exact method of determining the etching depth of a fiber could prove beneficial in many applications where the core or cladding of a fiber must be exposed to allow interaction between external materials and devices, and the light which propagates in the fiber. D-type fibers are etched by removing the outer protective layers of the fiber and then placing them in a solution of hydrofluoric acid (HF). Both the flat and semicircular portions of the fiber are etched. The etching has a negligible effect on the overall radius of the fiber, but on the flat side the etching process exposes the cladding and core because of their proximity to the flat surface. The required depth to which the core and cladding must be etched depends on the application. To obtain reproducible results the etching process must be carefully monitored and controlled. Monitoring of the etching process is achieved by observing the output from a section of the D-type fiber into which laser light has been focused. It has been noted that the output from the fiber varies slowly as a function of etching time for quite a while and begins to oscillate quite dramatically before it it declines to zero. This previously unreported oscillation is similar from fiber to fiber and can be used to monitor and control the depth to which a fiber is etched. The paper proposes an explanation for the observed oscillatory behavior and how it can be used to produce more accurate etching times and desired cladding thicknesses.
This paper describes a novel technique for fabricating diffraction grating devices in optical fibers. The diffraction gratings are formed on fibers having a D-shaped cross sectional profile (D-type fibers) produced by Andrew Corporation. It is advantageous to fabricate in-fiber devices since they are smaller than currently available channel waveguide devices, and more compatible with fiber optics technology. The fiber optics communications industry has a pressing need for both passive and active devices which will allow the processing of optical signals without the need of converting them to electrical signals. Among these devices are fiber to fiber couplers, directional couplers, filters, modulators, and wave division multiplexers. Development of a method for fabricating diffraction gratings in optical fibers to perform these functions is an important first step in the creation of such devices.
In complex optical systems comprising many individual components, the alignment of these components becomes a severe problem, especially if the alignment tolerances are in the micron or submicron range. In order to solve this problem, we describe an approach which uses a combination of diffractive and reflective optical elements which are arranged on a planar quartz glass substrate. The propagation of the light signal follows a zigzag path within the substrate. The components are all fabricated simultaneously by means of planar techniques such as photolithography, etching, deposition etc.. Their relative positioning is achieved by generating a mask (or several masks) with an electron-beam writer.
A binocular extends the range of human vision. Binoculars enable the user to see objects at greater distances or, alternatively, to see greater detail in distant objects. In failing light, binocul are used to detect objects that the naked eye cannot detect. Binoculars also extend the range of stereo vision of the user; this application is primarily of interest in military fire control.
Two orthogonally aligned liquid crystal lenses with spherical Fresnel zone plate electrode configurations have been demonstrated to focus an unpolarised broadband object with resulting good quality images. Switch on times of 15ms are reported along with modulation depths of 91.5%.
A simple method based on paraxial optics is presented which facilitates diffraction propagation cal-culations in all types of optical systems which have modest amounts of aberration, i.e. near-stigmatic systems. It is not only possible to apply the beam propagation method accurately to stigmatic GRIN media but a propagation distance of any length may be taken without using the split-step method. Studies of GRIN components have largely been either strictly geometrical in nature  or based on the split-step procedure. A recent publication has argued that the beam propagation method using split-step techniques has fundamental flaws in treating strongly inhomogeneous media such as Maxwell's fisheye lens . The ABCD methods as popularized by Siegman [1 ! and others to treat paraxial optics, gaussian beams and diffraction propagation form the basis the generalized ABCD method.
Because of the natural radiation effects on spaceborne instruments and because of the possible warfare radiation effects on military instruments, there is a growing interest and concern about the degradation effects on irradiated optics. A group of nine different visible optical parts (having a variety of substrate materials and coatings) were irradiated under a controlled environment. The transmissions of all nine components and the reflections of three components were measured before and after irradiation. The purpose of this paper is to present the values of the diminished transmission and reflection due to radiation exposure. In addition an attempt is made to relate specific glass types to specific levels of degradation.
An isolation table is needed for producing holograms. The stability of the isolation table is usually checked up using the light path of the Michelson interferometer. But there are the Michelson interferometers and aren't an isolation table in some colleges and middle schools. Then we have so refitted properly a Michelson interferometer that it can produce all kinds of holograms as well as its all original uses can be remained as an interferometer. With a refitted Michelson interferometer, we have produced coaxial and off-axial Fresnel holograms, reflection holograms, image holograms and holographic gratings, holographic lenses and so on,1'2 which are cheap and high-quality.
Nonlinear simulation of efficiency is given to the large-orbit non-wiggler free electron lasers,where the relativistic electron beam is guided by an axial magnetostatic field under the absence of wiggler. The influences of the initial parameters are discussed. It is found that 19% may be achieved for the efficiency of TE2,2,22 mode at the wave-length of 2 mm under the guide of several thousands gauss.
In t he paper. we have empha ii cal l y anal yzed and deduced a group of error formulas of measure' ng p1 oneness for large terrace by di agonal method from the pri nci pi e of unequal accuracy. 1 is accuracy i is hi gh. Old error formulas that are anal yzed and deduced from the equal act uracy have further been devel oped. At the same t i me, we have al so anal yzed I he accuracy of measuri ng planeness for 1 arge terrace by least area method and1 t dree-point method.
In tnis paper a new type of optical imaging system--Optical Compound Eye Lens is described.According in apposition cyc pattern of the insect compound eye, the general design formula of Optical compound Eye Lens are given. There are short focus, a large field of view and a mosaic structure of optical elements and detectors in this new type or optical system.ln this paper, to apply the theory of uncross axis optical system in calculation formula. the imaging formula of the limit distance point and limitless distance point on main axis of the optical system for Optical Compound Lye lens are introduced. It is pointed out in the result: the resolving power is equal to the angle between two near single eye lens.Finally, the clear aperture of Optical Compound Eye Lens is defined, and the concept of over image is advanced.
In order to increase NA of setfoc lens, a physical approach is proposed. The paper describes theory and preparation results of this approach, which depends on reshaping the surface of general :3etfoe tens.
A comparison has been made between classical and ion-assisted deposition (IAD) on Zr02 thin films and the optical and mechanical properties, laser damage resistance, crystalline structure and surface microstructure of the films were investigated and analyzed.
Post activation treatments like silver-indium flux induced crystallization and baking the layers in sensitized parent powder are known to promote grain growth and improve grain boundary properties in evaporated cadmium chalcogenide layers. The usefulness of these activation treatments has not been investigated on flux sintered layers. The effects of a few such treatments on screen-printed sintered layers of CdS0.5Se0.5 with regard to improvements in photosensitivity, response time and wave length or peak response are presented.
Time-resolved multi-frame interference records for the plasma that YAG laser produced on dielectric thin films are made by using Mach-Zehndcr interferometer and optical delaying system. The speed of plasma shock and electron density are calculated according to series interferograms, and relevant results about 15 ns pluse width (FWI1M) 1.06pm laser acting on dielectric thin films within 150 ns are obtained.
A new solid-state miniaturized instrument is described for photon correlation spectroscopy and its application to macromolecular suspensions. The steady evolution of instrumentation for photon correlation spectroscopy since the sixties is well documented. Most instrumentation of such type has been rather large, consisting of bulk optics, gas lasers, a large sample chamber in a goniometer arrangement and a photomultiplier tube. The equipment is linked to a digital photon correlator. The present instrument is designed around state of the art technology. The gas laser is replaced by a 830 nm solid state laser, the bulk optics is replaced by miniature SELFOC lens and monomode optic fibres. The goniometer is replaced by a ring of monomode optical fibres at fixed angles and detection is by a photon-counting avalanche photodiode (APD) in the passive quenching geiger mode. Preliminary results on typical macromolecular suspensions will be presented.
The unavailability of a wide dynamic range CCD area array has resulted in the inability to meet many needed wide dynamic range applications. Typically area array image sensors have at best 1000:1 dynamic range. This paper introduces an array, developed by DALSA that uses the companies proprietary VARISENSORTM technology to yield a dynamic range of better than 100,000:1. This paper will discuss the new array. The VARISENSOR utilizes an optimised, ion implant doped, profiled MOSFET photodetector specifically designed for wide dynamic range. The light intensity is logarithmically compressed into small charge packets, easily carried by the CCD shift register. As a result of the logarithmic conversion, optical dynamic ranges of five orders of magnitude are obtained. The area array is configured in an 128 x 128 interline transfer architecture with a 50 gm x 50 gm pitch. Buried channel CCD technology is used for improved noise and charge transfer efficiency. Applications for this array can be found in the area of laser beam profiling and acousto-optic signal processing, among others.