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5 March 2021 Machine learning techniques for real-time UV-Vis spectral analysis to monitor dissolved nutrients in surface water
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Abstract
Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy is a well-established technique for real-time analyzing contaminants in finished drinking water and wastewater. However, it has struggled in surface water because surface water such as river water has more complex chemical compositions than drinking water and lower concentrations of nutrient contaminants such as nitrate. Previous spectrophotometric analysis using absorbance peak at UV region to estimate nitrate in drinking water performs poorly in surface water because of interference from suspended particles and dissolved organic carbon which absorb light along similar wavelengths. To overcome these challenges, the paper develops a machine learning approach to utilize the entire spectral wavelengths for accurate estimation of low concentration of dissolved nutrients from surface water background. The spectral training data used in this research are obtained by analyzing water samples collected from the US-Canada bi-nationally regulated Detroit River during agricultural seasons using A.U.G. Signals' dual channel spectrophotometer system. Confirmatory concentrations of dissolved nitrate in these samples are validated by laboratory analysis. Several commonly used supervised learning techniques including linear regression, support vector machine (SVM), and deep learning using convolutional neural network (CNN) and long short-term memory (LSTM) network are studied and compared in this work. The results conclude that the SVM with linear kernel, CNN with linear activation function, and LSTM network are the best regression models, which are able to achieve a cross validation root-mean-squared-error (RMSE) less than 0.17 ppm. The results demonstrate effectiveness of the machine learning approach and feasibility of real-time UV-Vis spectral analysis to monitor dissolved nutrient levels in the surface watersheds.
Conference Presentation
© (2021) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Chuhong Fei, Xiang Cao, Devin Zang, Cindy Hu, Claudia Wu, Eric Morris, Juan Tao, Ting Liu, and George Lampropoulos "Machine learning techniques for real-time UV-Vis spectral analysis to monitor dissolved nutrients in surface water", Proc. SPIE 11703, AI and Optical Data Sciences II, 117031D (5 March 2021); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2577050
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