5 February 1990 Study of Titanium Diffusion in Lithium Niobate by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) Three Dimensional Profiling
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Proceedings Volume 1186, Surface and Interface Analysis of Microelectronic Materials Processing and Growth; (1990) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.963931
Event: 1989 Microelectronic Integrated Processing Conferences, 1989, Santa Clara, United States
Abstract
Titanium diffusion in lithium niobate (LiNbO3) is the most prevalent fabrication method for form-ing optical waveguides in this substrate. Three dimensional profiles of the diffused Ti can be used to model diffusion constants of Ti in LiNb03 and to predict optical properties. We have studied Ti diffusion in LiNb03 by image depth profilling mode of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). The novel application of SIMS to this substrate has enabled us to construct lateral cross sections at various depths as well as depth profiles. We varied the Ti thickness, Ti strip width, diffusion time and diffusion temperature to determine the diffused profile laterally and vertically. The SIMS depth profiles show that within the temperature range studied, the diffused profile depends strongly on the temperature with a weaker dependence on Ti thickness and diffusion time. Ti lateral cross sections at various depths indicate a concentra-tion dependent lateral diffusion constant. We calculated Ti diffusion constants and activation energies in the vertical dimension based on the SIMS data. The results of our study using this technique are applicable to integrated optics technology
© (1990) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Stephan Bar, Stephan Bar, Hilda Kanber, Hilda Kanber, Martin Lee, Martin Lee, Robert Buckley, Robert Buckley, } "Study of Titanium Diffusion in Lithium Niobate by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) Three Dimensional Profiling", Proc. SPIE 1186, Surface and Interface Analysis of Microelectronic Materials Processing and Growth, (5 February 1990); doi: 10.1117/12.963931; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.963931
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