This paper briefly describes conventional divider implementations including the transconductance cell, the log-antilog, and the inverted multiplier. It considers the limitations of each configuration, particularly in the space environment. The paper also outlines a new analog divider configuration based on pulse-modulation techniques. This circuit is able to achieve excellent performance in space due to its reliance on switching elements for the numerator action. The paper discusses the theory of operation of this approach and the error sources that can be expected.
Daniel N. Harres, Daniel N. Harres,
"Analog dividers for acquisition and tracking signal normalization", Proc. SPIE 1218, Free-Space Laser Communication Technologies II, (1 July 1990); doi: 10.1117/12.18178; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.18178