The evolutionary theory of color perception is described. It is based on three main propositions: 1) The physical nature of light and the environmental distributions of its information carrying parameters, 2) Constraints implied by the available biological material and physiological processes, and 3) The evolutionary tendency toward optimal usefulness for the survival of the species. The theory leads directly to the main properties of color perception: a) Newtonian color circle, metamers, additive and subtructive color mixtures, b) Adaptive (relativistic) transformations and color constancy (invariance), c) An operational procedure of color measurements. Among the major predictions are Lorentz type formulas for color transformations, and the explanation of two-color projections. Predictions based on color transformations will be demonstrated with a simple demonstration kit.