A iod1 of oJ. )tica. I hthograpliy suitable for certain types of onedimensional 1)eriOdic tOpogra)hy including birds beaks afl(L reflowed BISC4 structures is described. it is based on a formalism of diffraction grating theory which uses a. coordinate t. raiisforna. tiou to iap all the nonpla. uar surfaces oiit. o parallel planes a. iid it ca. ii be used for the rigorous simulation of photoresist. latent images of oiiedimensional mask patterns with periodicity fuller j)a. ra. lleI or I)(rI)e11(Iicu1a. r to that of the topogra)hy. Effects of t. opogra)11y scattering 1)111k illiaging and )11otob1eachu1Ig are fully ta. keii into a. ccounl. for both types of mask patterns. Simulation results illustrate the combined effects of topography scattering and I) ulk iiiaging in iioiipla. na. r pliotoli tliogra. phiy using high iiuinerical aperture optics.