Integrated-optic devices in LiNbO3 are reviewed with emphasis on fabrication technologies (titanium indiffusion,
proton exchange) including the critical areas of outdiffusion, fabrication tolerances, and stability, further on fibre
coupling, packaging and on the application of these devices in the field of optical communications.
"Integrated-optic devices in lithium niobate: technology and applications", Proc. SPIE 1274, Electro-Optic and Magneto-Optic Materials II, (1 August 1990); doi: 10.1117/12.20478; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.20478