We demonstrate waveguide devices for optical fiber communications that employ unique semiconductor
quantum well electrorefractive phenomena. Field- and carrier-induced effects are applied to electro-optic
directional coupler switches and interferometric intensity modulators that are considerably more compact than
bulk semiconductor waveguide devices. These quantum well waveguide components are -' 500 microns long,
suitable for monolithic integration with semiconductor laser diodes, and limited in speed only by RC parasitics.
Jane E. Zucker,
"Quantum-well electrorefraction and optical waveguide device applications", Proc. SPIE 1283, Quantum Well and Superlattice Physics III, (1 October 1990); doi: 10.1117/12.20734; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.20734