The fundamental limits of temperature estimation accuracy are computed for a gray body object. Cramer-Rao bounds are computed for both signal host noise and background-limited cases. A procedure is described for obtaining practical limits on temperature estimation for a given optical system and for evaluating sensitivity to system parameters. The applications include multispectral scene analysis, high-speed thermography, and temperature discrimination.
Jerzy Nowakowski, Jerzy Nowakowski,
"Fundamental limits in temperature estimation", Proc. SPIE 1311, Characterization, Propagation, and Simulation of Infrared Scenes, (1 September 1990); doi: 10.1117/12.21824; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.21824