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1 December 1990 Nucleation and growth of thin films
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A study has been made of the nucleation and growth of thin microcrystalline films of Cu,Au,Pt,Ni prepared by ion-beam sputtering. In-situ measurements of the film resistance during deposition have been analysed in terms of percolation theory for the early, discontinuous, phase and thin film, grain boundary, scattering for the quasi-continuous phase. This analysis yields values of the percolation threshold, fractional coverage and lateral grain dimensions, for different deposition rates, which are compared with the corresponding values obtained from direct observations and soft X-ray multilayers reflection spectra. The minimum thickness of the metallic nuclei is shown to be four atom layers.
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Brian L. Evans and Shi Xu "Nucleation and growth of thin films", Proc. SPIE 1324, Modeling of Optical Thin Films II, (1 December 1990);

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