With the advent of fiber to the subscriber systems comes the significant challenge of how to power the associated active electronics distributed outdoors in the local ioop. This paper addresses some issues associated with the powering of these systems and presents a network powering architecture which has been developed for this application.
Sharon L. Pellerin,
"Network powering architecture for fiber-to-the-subscriber systems", Proc. SPIE 1363, Fiber Optics in the Subscriber Loop, (1 January 1991); doi: 10.1117/12.24602; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.24602