The principle of the "camera-on-theodolite" calibration method is reviewed; no control field is required. Standard procedures and algorithms are presented for routine use of the method. The relevant image processing algorithms are described in detail. A sub-pixel shift method is proposed for assessment of the accuracy of target image location. The calibration results are analysed and the issue of the usability of the calibrated parameters is discussed. Using motorised theodolites, the method is particularly useful for fully automated calibration.
Yi Dong Huang,
"CCD camera calibration without a control field", Proc. SPIE 1395, Close-Range Photogrammetry Meets Machine Vision, 13953N (1 August 1990); doi: 10.1117/12.2294374; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2294374