During the past decade, the authors have been involved extensively in the use of local Microwave Hyperthermia (915 MHz) to the prostate, delivered transrectally. The initial purpose was to use local heat (41 degree(s)-44 degree(s)C) in order to treat cancer of the prostate which is a very common problem in western society, responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. At a later stage, benign prostatic enlargement and chronic prostatitis were included in the clinical studies. A special apparatus was developed for this purpose known as the Prostathermer (Biodan Co.). Treatment was found to be safe, easy to perform, well-tolerated by patients, and effective in bringing about relief in obstructive and irritative symptoms of prostatism, with local regression in cancer patients. Such has been the experience in several hundreds of patients and thousands of treatment with years of follow-up. Similar experience was shared by several other investigators in several countries. Local hyperthermia to the prostate has opened new horizons for urological clinical work and research. For the moment, it should be regarded as a therapeutic option, both by itself and also in conjunction with other forms of treatment for the various pathologies of the prostate.