Eighty-eight patients with stage III endobronchial squamous cell cancer were treated with Nd:YAG laser therapy alone (49), photodynamic therapy (PDT) alone (14), or a combination of Nd:YAG and PDT therapy (25). Mean survival rates were as follows: PDT equals 4.8 months, Nd:YAG therapy equals 3.3 months, PDT followed by Nd:YAG equals 10.9 months, Nd:YAG followed by PDT equals 9.0 months, and all combination therapy equals 9.2 months. The difference between survival rates for combination therapy and Nd:YAG only was statistically significant (P equals 0.003). The authors recommend a combination of PDT and Nd:YAG laser therapies in patients who have undergone or are not amenable to conventional therapies for this tumor. Further, the authors recommend that these patients be treated early, before the tumor spreads to other bronchi or becomes large and bloody, in order to reduce the risk for perioperative complications.