1 July 1991 Charging effects in low-voltage SEM metrology
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A common cause of nonlinearity in lithographic metrology with SEMs is charge accumulation on photoresist structures surrounding the features to be measured. This phenomenon has been observed to produce strikingly different results on three low-voltage (1 kV) SEMs evaluated under different operating conditions. Features examined were isolated lines, lines in gratings, isolated spaces, and contact holes which ranged from 0.5-1.3 micrometers in 0.1 micrometers increments. Critical dimension measurements at the base of photoresist structures were obtained from image linescans using algorithms indigenous to the systems. The linescans exhibited various degrees of intensity blooming, scan asymmetry, and image inversion as a function of operating conditions.
© (1991) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Kevin M. Monahan, Kevin M. Monahan, Jozef P. H. Benschop, Jozef P. H. Benschop, Tom A. Harris, Tom A. Harris, } "Charging effects in low-voltage SEM metrology", Proc. SPIE 1464, Integrated Circuit Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control V, (1 July 1991); doi: 10.1117/12.44419; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.44419

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