The atmospheric medium consists of aerosols and gases that can greatly affect the propagation of electromagnetic energy. Because these constituents, as well as temperature and turbulence, can vary greatly in time and space, propagation codes based on standard models of atmospheric parameters, climatological records, or limited measured data may not adequately simulate the propagation environment exposed to EO/IR sensors and systems. Lidar techniques are reviewed and data examples are presented that illustrate lidar capabilities for measurement of atmospheric transmissions over extended paths. The lidar also provides measurements of atmospheric structure and quantitative data on aerosol and gas concentration and temperature distributions needed to evaluate the propagation environment.
Edward E. Uthe,
John M. Livingston,
"Lidar evaluation of the propagation environment", Proc. SPIE 1487, Propagation Engineering: Fourth in a Series, (1 July 1991); doi: 10.1117/12.46564; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.46564