UARS is designed to provide the most extensive data base ever obtained on the coupled energy input, chemistry, and dynamics of the earth's upper atmosphere to increase enormously the current understanding of the upper atmosphere and to improve assessments of the depletion of stratospheric ozone caused by human activities. The UARS mission, observatory, and investigations are described. The UARS experimental investigations consist of energy input experiments, chemical species and temperature experiments, and dynamics experiments. Two instruments measure solar UV energy input while another measures energetic particle energy input and associated X-radiation emission from the atmosphere. Four instruments address chemical concentrations, and two make direct measurements of upper atmosphere winds.