Extensive experimental investigation applied at Ka band, of all VCO parameters including the effects of a sliding short circuit have confirmed the accuracy of the analysis. For example, a prediction of a 3.7 GHz or 13% tuning bandwidth at 28.5 GHz was experimentally confirmed. The accuracy of the analysis together with the rugged and modular VCO construction are useful for production technology of millimeter wave Gunn or IMPATT VCO's for Electronic Warfare or communications tunable local oscillator applications.
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Nizar Sultan, "Theoretical analysis and experimental verification of wideband tunable radial line millimeter waveguide voltage controlled oscillators," Proc. SPIE 1514, 15th International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves, 15147F (12 December 2017);