1 November 1991 Laser-flash photographic studies of Er:YAG laser ablation of water
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Photographic studies of pulse infrared laser irradiation of a pure-water target illustrate two aspects of mass removal: (1) surface evaporation, and (2) explosive vaporization. A pulsed Erbium:YAG (Er:YAG) laser provided radiation at a 2.9 micrometers wavelength for delivery to the target site and triggered a second visible laser (nitrogen/dye laser) for illumination of the target site for photography. A variable time delay between the Er:YAG and dye lasers allowed selection of the time of the photograph (
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Steven L. Jacques, Steven L. Jacques, Gary Gofstein, Gary Gofstein, } "Laser-flash photographic studies of Er:YAG laser ablation of water", Proc. SPIE 1525, Future Trends in Biomedical Applications of Lasers, (1 November 1991); doi: 10.1117/12.48218; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.48218

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