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24 October 1991 Compact nonimaging lens with totally internally reflecting facets
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A compact non-imaging lens is described and analyzed: the Totally Internally Reflecting (TIR) lens. It constitutes a major class of optical devices distinct from reflectors and Fresnel lenses. It is a transmissive device that redirects light passing through it via the action of a multiplicity of prismatic facets basically acting as annular Harting-Dove prisms that rotationally `wash-out' image structure. They can achieve much larger bend angles (well over 90 degree(s)) than those of the refraction-only facets of Fresnel lenses. As a consequence, TIR lenses are extremely compact, typically having a thickness about one fifth their diameter. This paper discusses their applications as collimators for small light sources (LEDs and HID lamps), injectors for fiber- optic illumination systems, and solar concentrators, and how close their performance comes to the ideal thermodynamic limit.
© (1991) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
William A. Parkyn and David G. Pelka "Compact nonimaging lens with totally internally reflecting facets", Proc. SPIE 1528, Nonimaging Optics: Maximum Efficiency Light Transfer, (24 October 1991);

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