1 November 1991 Silicon microlenses for enhanced optical coupling to silicon focal planes
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Abstract
The microlens array reported in this paper is for enhanced optical coupling of near IR photons into the edges of the Rockwell solid-state photomultiplier (SSPM). Here the edge-illumination is necessary to achieve the required quantum efficiency of near IR photons in the SSPM, a device which is capable of photon counting. SSPM detection requires a method of highly efficient optical coupling to the gain medium to concentrate light with a 100 fill factor where lenslets are centered with a precise 0.2 micrometers accuracy. The microlens array is designed for a center wavelength of 1.3 micrometers , 1975 micrometers pixel dimension and a speed of f/4, which results in the array being nearly diffraction limited. The smallest feature size is 0.9 micrometers for the 8-phase level devices. From this design, we have successfully fabricated an 8-phase- level SSPM microlens array which demonstrates a 0.2 micrometers alignment accuracy among all three mask levels. SEM studies of the microlens show a high-quality surface finish and near vertical sidewalls. Optical characterization demonstrates that the microlens array is diffraction- limited at the design speed and design wavelength, with diffraction efficiency higher than 84.
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M. Edward Motamedi, M. Edward Motamedi, Marsden P. Griswold, Marsden P. Griswold, Robert E. Knowlden, Robert E. Knowlden, } "Silicon microlenses for enhanced optical coupling to silicon focal planes", Proc. SPIE 1544, Miniature and Micro-Optics: Fabrication and System Applications, (1 November 1991); doi: 10.1117/12.49370; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.49370
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