1 December 1991 Bulk darkening of flux-grown KTiOPO4
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A quantitative assessment of the bulk darkening phenomenon for flux-grown KTiOPO4 (KTP) is reported. Measurements were made for KTP use as a component for second harmonic generation of 1064 nm Nd:YAG operating in a pulsed mode. The results show that bulk darkening severity increases with fluence and exposure time. Irreversible bulk darkening has been observed at laser energies ranging from 8.8 to 18 J/cm2 depending on the shot count. Fluences exceeding 15 J/cm2 can cause catastrophic damage. Data taken at elevated temperatures indicates an improved reliability. The onset of slight bulk darkening revealed no adverse effects on conversion efficiency.
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David R. Rockafellow, David R. Rockafellow, Edward A. Teppo, Edward A. Teppo, John C. Jacco, John C. Jacco, } "Bulk darkening of flux-grown KTiOPO4", Proc. SPIE 1561, Inorganic Crystals for Optics, Electro-Optics, and Frequency Conversion, (1 December 1991); doi: 10.1117/12.50758; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.50758

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