1 April 1992 Manufacture of large-scale mechanical devices in single-crystal silicon by high-speed grinding
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Abstract
Preliminary studies have been performed on small beams of silicon (1 X 6 X 40 mm) diamond machined by high speed milling/grinding. The effect of the grinding on the strength of these specimens has been assessed by masking a small portion of the surface and etching in a 1:9 solution of hydrofluoric and nitric acids for a set time. Removal of the mask reveals a step which is measured to determine the amount of material removed from the surface. These are then examined using x-ray diffractometry and the etch step surface finish measured using a Rank Taylor Hobson Form Talysurf stylus profilometer. Finally, the strength of the specimens is measured by loading the beams to failure in a small three point bend testing machine and monitoring the failure load. There is a slight increase in strength between the as-ground specimen and those where the surface has been etched by 1 - 2 micrometers . Both x-ray and stylus measurements indicate the presence of a surface layer of thickness of the order one micrometer that is likely to be due to ductile mode grinding. It is also noted that there appears to be a local peak in strength after approximately 2 - 3 micrometers has been etched from the surface. This is followed by a small reduction before steadily increasing to a maximum value of 425 MPa. It is speculated that this could be a result of a low defect zone around the tips of the cracks that are invariably propagated during the grinding process.
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S. T. Smith, Derek G. Chetwynd, D. Jackson, "Manufacture of large-scale mechanical devices in single-crystal silicon by high-speed grinding", Proc. SPIE 1573, Commercial Applications of Precision Manufacturing at the Sub-Micron Level, (1 April 1992); doi: 10.1117/12.57744; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.57744
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