Short-range optoelectronic interconnection systems not only between, but also within, data processing systems have often been proposed in recent years. They handle high-data rates, eliminate ground loops, avoid crosstalk along the length of the line, allow parallel communications, and will, in the future, dissipate less heat than purely electronic data links, thus allowing higher packing densities. Diffractive optical elements (DOEs) are well suited for application in parallel array interconnects, because of flexibility in design, the possibility to manufacture array-optics (arrays of lenses, deflectors, beam splitters), small size, and light weight. DOEs can be miniaturized, they may integrate several different functions (focusing, deflection, and beam splitting) into one component, and they often can be fabricated by planar technologies and replicated, once one master has been made. How to fabricate light efficient DOEs is discussed. Several system experiments are presented: (1) parallel one-to-one array connections; (2) interconnections based on a light guiding glass plate with holographic coupling elements; (3) permutation elements for optoelectronic switching systems; and (4) bus- type interconnections (many-to-many interconnection) based on multiple beam splitters.