Industrial gyrotrons are being developed for more than fifteen years in the Soviet Union. Gyrotrons, that are developed and manufactured by industrial firms, completely meet requirements inside the Soviet Union. Gyrotrons are used mainly for scientific researches and specifically for fusion experiments. These tubes are used in Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy (Moscow), in its branches in Troitsk, Leningrad, Kharkov , Novosibirsk.
V. E. Myasnikov,
"Soviet industrial gyrotrons", Proc. SPIE 1576, 16th International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves, 15761S (1 October 1991); doi: 10.1117/12.2297777; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2297777