The recent development of Nd3+- and Er3+?doped waveguide amplifiers and lasers in LiNbO3 with proton-exchanged or Ti-diffused channels is reviewed. Besides rare earth doped bulk crystals, also initially undoped substrates have been used for device fabrication. The latter were doped by ion-implantation, followed by thermal annealing, or by indiffusion of an evaporated (photolithographically defined) metallic (Er-) layer. Low threshold (a few mW of absorbed pump power), single transversal mode waveguide lasers of about 1 cm length and medium-gain (up to 7.5 dB) optical amplifiers have been developed in several versions in the Nd-doped material for ? = 1.08/?m (emission) wavelength. With Er a low-gain, but broadband optical amplifier for the wavelength range 1.53mm < ? < 1.62 ?m has been demonstrated as well as a 1 cm long laser of ? = 1.532 ?m emission wavelength.