The problem of determining the position and orientation of a mobile robot has been addressed by several researchers using sensors of different modalities, including video cameras. Invariably, all the vision-based approaches for robot localization consider that the camera is mounted on the robot and that the robot working environment is assumed to contain prominent landmarks at known locations. In this paper we propose a robot localization scheme where the robot itself serves as the landmark for cameras that are positioned in the environment to cover the entire work area of the robot. Although the proposed approach is applicable for the robots of any regular shape, we develop the solution to the localization problem by assuming a cylindrical shape for the robot. A compete mathematical analysis of the localization problem is given by extending the three-dimensional structure-from-rotational motion approach to the present task. We also examine the implementation issue of the proposed approach and present experimental results to show its effectiveness.