To utilize the full potential of CCD cameras a careful design must be performed. The main contribution with respect to the final precision and reliability comes from the camera calibration. Both the precision of the estimated parameters or any functions of them (e.g., object coordinates) and the sensitivity of the system with respect to the undetected model errors are of importance. The paper describes a flexible calibration method, which can give an accuracy of 0.05 pixels (a posterior standard error of observations). No extra reference system nor any initial values for the parameters are needed. A distance bar brings the scale information and acts as a tool to stabilize the network. In the paper, particular attention is paid to the sensitivity analysis, which is shown to be very important. This is demonstrated via some network examples, which show a couple of fatal and weak cases, if careless design is performed. Finally, some recommendations for proper design are established.
Jan Heikkila, Jan Heikkila,
"Sensitivity analysis of camera calibration", Proc. SPIE 1615, Machine Vision Architectures, Integration, and Applications, (1 March 1992); doi: 10.1117/12.58797; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.58797