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16 April 1992 Fluorescence-lifetime-based sensing of blood gases and cations
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Chemical sensing with fluorescent probes is usually accomplished by measuring the fluorescence intensity or using wavelength-ratiometric probes. Measurement of fluorescence decay times, rather than intensities, is advantageous because the decay times are largely independent of intensity changes due to light losses, photobleaching, or probe washout. Present technology allows measurement of nanosecond decay times by the phase-modulation method with inexpensive and robust instrumentation. This report describes the use of phase- modulation fluorometry for lifetime-based sensing of O2, pH, Ca2+ and K+.
© (1992) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Joseph R. Lakowicz, Henryk Szmacinski, and Klaus W. Berndt "Fluorescence-lifetime-based sensing of blood gases and cations", Proc. SPIE 1648, Fiber Optic Medical and Fluorescent Sensors and Applications, (16 April 1992);

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