26 June 1992 High-sensitivity confocal imaging with bilateral scanning and CCD detectors
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The high quantum efficiency and high red sensitivity of a charge coupled device (CCD) make it a very suitable detector for confocal fluorescence imaging, especially for applications in biology, where short wavelength illumination may cause undesirable radiation damage. In addition, its high dynamic range matches the high contrast imaging inherent in confocal microscopy, and enables one to record small intensity differences if this dynamic range is well exploited. Applications shown include imaging with bleaching rate and non-linear fluorescence excitation as parameters. The bilateral scan technique permits effective confocal imaging using this type of device. CCDs can be used for confocal imaging both in high speed (up to real- time) applications as well as in the integration mode, where the high sensitivity application areas for this confocal technique are present.
© (1992) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
G. J. Brakenhoff, G. J. Brakenhoff, Koen Visscher, Koen Visscher, } "High-sensitivity confocal imaging with bilateral scanning and CCD detectors", Proc. SPIE 1660, Biomedical Image Processing and Three-Dimensional Microscopy, (26 June 1992); doi: 10.1117/12.59582; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.59582

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