1 August 1992 Three-dimensional inspection of integrated circuits: a depth from focus approach
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Optical inspection of integrated circuit images is an application of image understanding which is becoming an important field in the microelectronics industry. When the inspection is performed by optical microscopy, a small depth of field of an optical system causes problems dealing with focusing when structures with large depth variations are imaged. We propose a method which takes advantage of this effect to make a depth map of the circuit surface. The method is based on the analysis of defocusing on a series of images obtained by continuously varying the distance between the circuit surface and the center of the optical system. Morphological algorithms working in three-dimensional spaces are used to ensure the coherence of the results.
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Xavier Binefa, Xavier Binefa, Jordi M. Vitria, Jordi M. Vitria, Juan Jose Villanueva, Juan Jose Villanueva, "Three-dimensional inspection of integrated circuits: a depth from focus approach", Proc. SPIE 1661, Machine Vision Applications in Character Recognition and Industrial Inspection, (1 August 1992); doi: 10.1117/12.130302; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.130302

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