9 July 1992 Effect of stitching errors on the performance of DFB lasers fabricated using e-beam lithography (Poster Paper)
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A comprehensive investigation on field stitching errors and their effect on the single-mode characteristics of DFB lasers fabricated using e-beam lithography is presented. The stitching errors are associated with small-area, high-resolution electron beam exposure, which has the potential advantage of high-speed writing of laser gratings. Measurements show that the errors are composed of a systematic and a stochastic part. Their effect on the grain margin was simulated both for (lambda) /4 phase-shifted and optimized multiple-phase-shifted DFB lasers. Simulations show that the lasers are insensitive to the systematic part of the stitching errors if the number of errors is large enough. The stochastic part was found to give rise to a variation in gain margin of the DFB lasers. We have concluded that the field stitching accuracy in the high-resolution mode of a commercial system for electron beam lithography is sufficient to provide a high yield of single-mode lasers. However, it is essential that certain precautions are taken considering exposure conditions, and that a fault tolerant laser design is used. Devices with side-mode suppression ratios of up to 48 dB have been fabricated, confirming that small-area, high-resolution e-beam lithography is appropriate in the production of high-quality single-mode DFB lasers.
© (1992) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Torgil Kjellberg, Torgil Kjellberg, Richard Schatz, Richard Schatz, Stefan Nilsson, Stefan Nilsson, Bjoern Broberg, Bjoern Broberg, } "Effect of stitching errors on the performance of DFB lasers fabricated using e-beam lithography (Poster Paper)", Proc. SPIE 1671, Electron-Beam, X-Ray, and Ion-Beam Submicrometer Lithographies for Manufacturing II, (9 July 1992); doi: 10.1117/12.136022; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.136022

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