1 June 1992 Effect of condenser tilt on projection images produced by a phase-shifting mask
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Abstract
The effects of condenser tilt on the imaging characteristics of optical projection exposure systems for lithography are investigated analytically and experimentally. For the focus dependence of images, the difference between a phase-shifting mask and a conventional transmission mask is examined. Condenser tilt effects are explored by displacing the source images formed on the entrance pupil of a projection lens. Condenser tilt is shown to shift periodic line pattern images when the image plane is out of focus. For fine features near the resolution limit of the projection lens, the direction of image shift that occurs with a phase- shifting mask is shown to be opposite the shift that occurs with a transmission mask. For fine features, condenser tilt is also shown to diminish the image contrast obtained with phase-shifting mask and increase the contrast obtained with transmission mask.
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Tsuneo Terasawa, Tsuneo Terasawa, Norio Hasegawa, Norio Hasegawa, Souichi Katagiri, Souichi Katagiri, Katsunobu Hama, Katsunobu Hama, "Effect of condenser tilt on projection images produced by a phase-shifting mask", Proc. SPIE 1674, Optical/Laser Microlithography V, (1 June 1992); doi: 10.1117/12.130314; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.130314
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