28 August 1992 Design and fabrication of tin oxide gate CCD visible imaging arrays
Author Affiliations +
Detector arrays made with polysilicon gate charge-coupled device (CCD) technology have been used as visible imaging sensors for many years. The sensitivity of these detectors is limited by the absorption of incident energy in the polysilicon gate electrodes which prevents it from reaching the bulk silicon body of the device. In order to overcome the limited optical transmission of polysilicon films, electrically conductive, optically transparent films of tin oxide have been employed as gate electrodes for CCD visible imaging detector devices. With a quantum efficiency of 85% in the mid range of the visible spectrum, these front side illuminated arrays offer superior sensitivity over devices fabricated with polysilicon gate technology. The use of tin oxide as the gate material imposes several constraints on the CCD device structure and the fabrication process technology. These constraints include limits on processing temperatures and the ambient to which the material can be exposed during processing. This presentation will describe the technology used to fabricate tin oxide gate CCD devices as well as design considerations for both staring and TDI scanning devices. Both open pinned phase and four phase device architectures will be discussed.
© (1992) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Alfred P. Turley, Alfred P. Turley, Bron R. Frias, Bron R. Frias, Arlene A. Santos, Arlene A. Santos, Robert Thomas Tacka, Robert Thomas Tacka, Leroy C. Colquitt, Leroy C. Colquitt, Murray Polinsky, Murray Polinsky, John P. Ebner, John P. Ebner, Eric S. Juergensen, Eric S. Juergensen, Ruth Bishop, Ruth Bishop, Peter A. DiFonzo, Peter A. DiFonzo, } "Design and fabrication of tin oxide gate CCD visible imaging arrays", Proc. SPIE 1693, Surveillance Technologies II, (28 August 1992); doi: 10.1117/12.138079; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.138079


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