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9 July 1992 Analysis of image registration algorithms for infrared images
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Image registration techniques have gained importance for many applications such as area correlation tracking, handing over recognized target scenes from one sensor to another sensor, tracking an area of interest before detection, tracking point targets, and the latest being multi- target handling capability for defense needs, scene stabilization, etc. No single image registration algorithm (IRA) can work satisfactorily for all applications and in all environments. This paper analyzes the suitability of image registration algorithms for infrared images. Infrared images are characterized by low contrast and sensor nonuniformities such as offset-errors, gain variations resulting in fixed pattern noise (FPN). Particularly, in focal plane arrays (FPA), the output of each detector is characterized by `ax + b' where `a' and `b' are gain and dc offset terms respectively, and `x' is photon flux level falling on the detectors. These parameters and especially their variations from detector element to detector element effect the performance of image registrations algorithms. In this paper, the basic IRAs are analyzed in this context of infrared images with low contrast and FPN. Simulated results using real world images are presented. Novel and inexpensive confidence and redundancy measures have been proposed to improve the performance by detecting misregistrations.
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Ronda Venkateswarlu and B. N. Chatterji "Analysis of image registration algorithms for infrared images", Proc. SPIE 1699, Signal Processing, Sensor Fusion, and Target Recognition, (9 July 1992);

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