Fabrication and test of optical elements at shortwave bands is one of the essential subjects in research of x-ray optics technology. This paper describes the background and purpose for developing x-ray optics technology, and the characteristics and requirements of fabricating elements and their application. Progress on research of fabrication and test of optical elements at x-ray wave band, mainly in Changchun Institute of Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, is briefly described and several examples are given in this paper. Fabrication techniques and test methods on the substrates of fused quartz spherical laminar gratings, scanning cylindrical mirrors for x-ray photolithography used for synchrotronization radiation beam line, and the x-ray multiple layer monochromater are emphasized. Results obtained indicate that roughness of the super-smooth surfaces of optical elements is up to 0.1 nm rms.
"Fabrication and testing of x-ray optical elements", Proc. SPIE 1720, Intl Symp on Optical Fabrication, Testing, and Surface Evaluation, (20 October 1992); doi: 10.1117/12.132177; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.132177