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2 March 1993 Multimple-imaging and multiple-focusing Fresnel lenses with high numerical aperture
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Proceedings Volume 1732, Holographics International '92; (1993) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.141452
Event: Holographics International '92, 1992, London, United Kingdom
Abstract
We report the successful design and fabrication of integrated devices that combine optical beam splitting and lensing into a single element. These elements are made by etching a 4-phase level pattern into quartz glass using electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. They are designed using an algorithm based on simulated annealing to optimize the Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral that transforms the lens pixel pattern, containing up to 4 million pixels, to fit the desired output pattern. The devices can be optimized for any conjugate ratio; we have made examples of both imaging and focusing elements. At a working wavelength of 1.52 micrometers , measured efficiencies have been obtained of 67% for 4-phase level, F/2 single lenses and around 62% for 4-level F/2 and F/5 multiple imaging lenses that produce 16 output spots from a single input. In all cases for both the single and multiple lenses the output spots were diffraction limited.
© (1993) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
David Wood, Paul McKee, and Mark P. Dames "Multimple-imaging and multiple-focusing Fresnel lenses with high numerical aperture", Proc. SPIE 1732, Holographics International '92, (2 March 1993); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.141452
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