5 November 1992 Modeling refraction and attenuation effects in invasive ultrasound probes
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With the current clinical interest in invasive probes, small size has become paramount in many applications. When a mechanically steered probe is reduced in size, the exit window becomes tightly curved around the transducer. Angles of incidence upon that window increase, differences in sound speed at interfaces are more significant, and refraction increases. The incident angles may approach critical angles. How much does this hurt performance? A ray tracing technique of predicting field behavior is used to analyze the performance of annular array transesophageal probes, as an example. The properties of several different candidate polymers and fluids properties were determined at 37 degree(s)C. Probe performance was calculated when these comprised the fluid and exit window. With sound speed differences of 20%, degradation of resolution is significant, but subtle. Electronic focusing has to be chosen to produce optimum resolution.
© (1992) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Joe F. Guess "Modeling refraction and attenuation effects in invasive ultrasound probes", Proc. SPIE 1733, New Developments in Ultrasonic Transducers and Transducer Systems, (5 November 1992); doi: 10.1117/12.130596; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.130596

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